According to the CIA’s World Factbook, Mongolia is one of 73 countries that have some form of conscription, or mandatory military service. Currently, the ages for compulsory and voluntary military service are 18 to 27. All males have a one year conscript service obligation in armed or air forces, or in law enforcement.

Men’s conscription in the modern era started in 1912, a time when the country (under the rule of Bogd Khan) was trying to maintain its newfound independence. After 1911, the value of the military, and conscription as a byproduct, increased. During the threat of Japanese militarism in the 1930s, the role of the military was as important as ever. This all came to a head with the Battle of Khalkhiin Gol in 1939. However, the role of the military has dwindled since then, with the last active engagement of the army being in 1948. Mongolia’s national security has depended on diplomacy rather than militarism. With countries with two of the world’s largest armies for neighbors, Mongolia is limited in its capacity to protect its border in the event of a foreign invasion. Even though it is important for a country to have a military, building one up by conscription does not seem to be ideal for Mongolia.

One of the main arguments used for conscription is the potential character building that military service entails. Many people tend to be of the mindset that serving in the military makes a person more mature and stronger. While this can be true for some, mandatory military service in the country has been seen by many people as both physically and mentally damaging. The amount of hazing and “tough love” discipline that takes place in the military is common knowledge and, to a certain extent, is accepted. In previous years, there have been several reports of soldiers dying while carrying out their mandatory military service. Some reports even indicate that soldiers have been beaten to death by their superiors. There is potentially a myriad of unreported cases of abuse that have not been disclosed due to protecting state secrets. The problem seems to be that since every male is conscripted, individuals who are physically ready but not psychologically or mentally fit for service are still enlisted.

Conscription has also been unfairly and unevenly imposed on individuals. Since it is possible to make a payment to the government to dodge the mandatory one year of service, those who are in higher socioeconomic classes have the opportunity to avoid it. It is also possible for university students to opt out. Young men who are not able to pay are required by law to serve. This creates an inequality gap, in which young men from low income groups with no higher education are forced to serve in the military. The military could potentially offer opportunities to those men to improve their lives, but when service is forced upon them, it can be detrimental.

Aside from the negative aspects conscription has for many soldiers, it can also have a negative effect on the country’s workforce. Men with higher education, who could be contributing to the economy and society in other ways, are wasting their time in the military. Realistically, young men are risking their mental and physical health, and their future careers as an extension, when fulfilling their mandatory service. Austria, for instance, has mandatory military service, but also offers alternate ways to fulfill their service, including opportunities in the civil sector. This allows individuals to choose how to fulfill their civic duty depending on their own preferences and abilities. It is a way of serving their country without having to enlist in the military. Reforming conscription to a system like Austria’s could be an alternative to abolishing it outright.

To be frank, there aren’t many solid arguments for conscription to continue. In a democratic country which prioritizes human rights, forcing a group of the population to serve in the military is unfair and not conducive to the ideals of the country. While some people might argue that many developed countries technically still practice conscription, such as Austria, a large number of them do not enforce conscription and their armies are primarily composed of volunteers. The most ideal path for Mongolia is to abolish conscription during peacetime, while increasing the salaries of volunteers. Building an army of volunteers creates a much more efficient and professional army, one capable of protecting the country. Abolishing conscription during peacetime still leaves the opportunity to change the system in the event of war. This, coupled with the reform of military standards, will help fully modernize the Mongolian Armed Forces.


  1. Mr Chintushig
    2 questions from you
    Do we really enough time to train mobilized soldiers when war declared or invasion started.
    What makes our national identity ?

    • 1. In regards to your first question, in the event that Mongolia is pulled into an armed conflict, I predict that Mongolia will not be an aggressor but rather a country caught up in the conflict. Therefore, our military force would not have to be mobilized outside of the country and would only work as a defensive mechanism against foreign aggression. In that scenario, the active army would be mobilized first, with the reserve and able-bodied men quickly being trained. Now, if we’re talking straight up invasion by either Russia or China, then realistically Mongolia has no chance at fending their armies off. In that case, I don’t believe that the armed forces should and would be mobilized. That scenario is unlikely to unfold but in the event that it does, it would probably play out as mentioned. This is why, as I mentioned in the article, Mongolia relies on diplomacy rather than militarism regarding national security. There is no doubt that Mongolia needs an army, whether it be for internal issues or border protection. The argument I made in the article was regarding the abolishment of the outdated conscription system. The armed forces would benefit much more with a select group of professional and well compensated soldiers.
      2. I am not exactly sure about the context of your second question. If I understood correctly, what makes up our national identity is our history, culture, and common heritage. People feel a sense of belonging in Mongolia due to our common heritage and shared values. I think people gain a stronger sense of national identity during hard times. This was evident in the revolutions that occurred in the country over the last century. People tend to have this us against the world mentality which can help maintain a strong sense of national identity. On the other hand, I also believe that sometimes that strong sense of national identity can turn into chauvinism. It is important for the country as a whole to retain a strong national identity while also being careful not to let that sentiment turn into xenophobia.

  2. Conscrption is the best options for many countries and just people without much education can talk bad about it. Sweden introduced it back also.

    • Mongolia should go the way of Costa Rica; NO ARMY! There’s no need to waste money with an army that wouldn’t last 2 hours if China rolls in. Invest this money in education, affordable housing and health care, and pray that the US doesn’t collapse.


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